# Solving Polynomials

A well known (if not by name) theorem is the Abel–Ruffini theorem, which states that there is no algebraic expression for the roots of polynomials with degree higher than 4.

A not-so-well-known fact is that for any polynomial $P(x)$, it is possible to find (with exact arithmetic) a set of ranges each containing exactly one root of $P(x)$. One such algorithm is due to James Victor Uspensky in 1948.

Uspensky's algorithm requires all roots to have multiplicity 1; $P(x)$ can be trivially replaced with $P(x)/\gcd(P(x), P'(x))$ to eliminate duplicate roots, if necessary. The algorithm relies on Descartes' rule of signs, which states that the number of positive solutions (counting multiplicities) to a polynomial is equal to $\mathrm{var}(P(x)) - 2 k$, where $\mathrm{var}(P(x))$ is the number of sign changes between consecutive non-zero coefficients of $P(x)$, and $k$ is a non-negative integer.

This clearly implies that if $\mathrm{var}(P(x))$ is 0 or 1, then the polynomial must have exactly 0 or 1 root in $(0, \infty)$, respectively. Otherwise, we can transform the polynomial and try again. Expanding $A(x) = P(x + 1)$, we can test $\mathrm{var}(A(x))$ to learn about the roots in $(1, \infty)$. Expanding $B(x) = (x + 1)^n P(1/(x + 1))$, where $n$ is the degree of the polynomial $P(x)$, we can similarly test $\mathrm{var}(B(x))$ to learn about the roots in $(0, 1)$. If $A(0) = 0$, then $x = 1$ is a root of $P(x)$.

If we don't get conclusive information from one of the tests (i.e. $\mathrm{var}(A(x)) > 1$ or $\mathrm{var}(B(x)) > 1$), apply the same two transformations ($P(x) \mapsto P(x+1)$ and $P(x) \mapsto (x+1)^n P(1/(x+1))$ to the offending polynomial(s). Uspensky proves that this recursive procedure always terminates for square-free polynomials. A reasonable bound on the recursion depth may also be shown.

From a CS perspective, the two transformations are easy to implement. If $P(x) = \sum_{i=0}^n p_i x_i$, then

$A(x) = \sum_{i=0}^n \left( \sum_{j=i}^n \binom{j}{i} p_j \right) x^i, \quad B(x) = \sum_{i=0}^n \left( \sum_{j=i}{n} \binom{j}{i} p_{n-j} \right) x^i.$

Another CS-related point is that one of the resultant intervals may have an infinite upper bound. Cauchy provides a general upper bound $1 + (\max_{i=0}^{n-1} |p_i|) / |p_n|$ which may be used to produce a finite upper bound.

A C implementation of this algorithm as a root-solver in my ray-tracer Dimension can be seen here.